Turquoise

Category  :  Phosphate mineral
Hardness  :  5-6
Gravity  :  2.6-2.9
Reflection  :  1.61
Color  :  Blue, blue-green, green
Chemical formula  :  CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O
Crystal system  :  Triclinic
Major varieties  :  Turquoise

Turquoise was among the first gems to be mined, and while many historic sites have been depleted, some are still worked to this day. These are all small-scale, often seasonal operations, owing to the limited scope and remoteness of the deposits. Most are worked by hand with little or no mechanization. However, turquoise is often recovered as a byproduct of large-scale copper mining operations, especially in the United States.


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